Terms and Glossaries

This place content some technical terms of optical storage and CD/DVD/BD in order to help you understand more about optical technology.

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Compare to Disc-at-Once recording, CD burners record one track at a time, and between tracks the laser heads will stop and wait for burners to prepare the recording information.

In a data CD, a track can contain data, file, pictures or anything that can be load into computer. In a audio CD, a track can contain one song, one piece of music or recorded voice. Usually there are gaps between tracks.

TOC

It refers to Table of Contents in a CD. It tells the reading systems that how many tracks does this CD have, how long these tracks are, where these tracks start and how much data this CD contains.

This is the first menu user will see when they first time play the DVD(or sometimes it would appear after the introductory short film). It can show the users various options relate to the DVD like contents, language setting or play whole DVD.

It refers to a file folder in video DVD that contain audio data.

 Audio CDRs are certain kind of special Cds that marked with "For Music use". Notice that these kind of CDs are not "better" than the regular CDs but the only two differences:

ASPI stands for "Advanced SCSI Programming Interface". For some of the OS(ex: windows 95 or 98) they don't have the ability to connect SCSI or IDE devices. In order to connect SCSI or IDE devies directly;therefore, the ASPI had been invented.

In the optical storage, it means errors which detected on a CD. Scraches, dirts, finger print or other similar physical defects on the disc could case this kind of errors. It could be fixed by the error correction code if it is not too serious or too many.

When the "Buffer-Underrun"-which means computer fail to supply data enough to allow the laser to write data in the correct speed-happens, the writing process usually cannot continue. However, the "Burn-proof" technology can prevent all this to happen.

When you try to burn a disc, the laser need to continuously feed the blank disc data information. However, most of the computers do not have the ability to do so; therefore, the burning system need to get buffer-stores certain amount of data and wait for sending them in the correct speed.

BIT

Bit is the short term for Binary Digit, and it is the basic unit of computer information. It can be either one or zero, and it can also be interpreted into +/-, true/false on/off or anything that only has two options.

This term refers to the ratio of misinterpret bits. The ratio comes from misinterpret bits dives by total numbers of bits.

CD-RW is a kind of CD that can be burned again once it got burned. It can be burned like CD-R but it can be erased and burned up to 1000 times. However, most of CD-player and some older CD-ROM cannot read CD-RW.

This term means Compact Disc - Read-Only Memory. This format is for read only, which means it was pressed by the factory no matter its audio format or data format.

CD-Extra-CD is a kind of Muti-session CD. There are two sessions in CD-Extra-CD:

Session 1: contains normal audio data.

Session 2: contains computer data

C2 errors are usually correctable errors......actually, they are more like "warnings". It probably means you discs are dirty or scratched. If you clean the disc, these errors probably disappear. However, if the C2 errors do not disappear, your CDs could be dying.

This term means DVD Read-Only Memory. This format is for read only, which means it was pressed by the factory no matter its video, audio or data format.

Also known as Dual layer Discs. This term refer to a kind of disc that contain two layers of data and because of that, it can contain almost twice amount of data compare to single layer disc(4.7G vs 8.5G).

DAT

It refers to a file type that contain video data for Video CDs. It has MEPG-1 video in it.

This term can refer to CD that content audio and none-audio data, or DVD content video and non-video data. It sometimes even means a CD/DVD which contain PC format file and Mac format files.

This term refer to a kind of file that contain all the content of a disc. Usually we use this file for copy an entire disc or stimulate a disc on a computer without the original disc. You could "withdraw" iso image from a disc with many burning related software such as ImgBurn.

AKA CDFS (Compact Disc File System). ISO 9660 is a kind of CD file system that was published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It can help all the operating system like Windows, Mac or Unix exchange information with CDs.

In contrast of On-the-fly copy, the image copy will try to build up an image from CD and after it has been fully constructed, the burning process will be started. The advantages of this method is:

This term refers to a kind of file which contain partial or whole data of a disk/disc. The source could be hard disk, floppy disk, optical disc or USB flash drive. But in optical storage terms it usually refers to ISO Image.

This file system was created by Microsoft as an extension of ISO 9660 and it was used mainly for extend the file name up to 64 Unicode characters. It was used on Windows 95 and now can be read on any OS after Windows 95. Moreover, it can also be read by Mac and Linux.

Jitter is the track length inconsistency in the same audio CD between different CD-players. It also might happen in the data CDs but it matters little because data CDs got sector marks.

It refers to a plastic foldable case which you can put disc in it. For most of the time, people only put CDs(audio CD, video CD, data CD) in it.

It refers to a kind of plastic disc holder that usually is used for DVD. It is bigger, softer than jewel case. It usually holds one or two DVD, but it can hold much more, like six DVDs.

Since the discs are recorded in  Binary Digit, which means there are only two kinds of data in it: zero and one. Therefore, the "up" part, which we called "land", is represent of one.

It is a kind of DVD video that contains more than one language. The parts that can be changed are subtitles, audio, even menu languages. Users can choose their suitable languages while using this kind of DVD.

This term refers to the metal disc mold which is used for replicating other discs. It can also refer to the source disc that created the image file.

It is an extension technology of DVD format that can be used for 3D video game play and it uses DVD menu tools as the controlling tools the games. It was introduced before the Play Station 2 and it published some DVDs and also some games.

Compare to Image Copy, on-the-fly copy will directly copy while reading from the master disc. It's faster, it takes less hard disk space, but everything else is disadvantage. 

Also known as PCA. It refers to the space in the CD for laser to calibrate in order to read and write the disc.

It refers to the preparing process that before the actual burning. It could be included data distributing, building address for sectors and prepare error correction information.

It is the silence or null data before the tracks of the discs which used for dividing the tracks. It contain 2 seconds(150 blocks) of blank information. However, if the next tracks are the different type of tracks it might be 3 seconds(225 blocks).

It is the silence or null data after the tracks of the discs which used for dividing the tracks. It contain 2 seconds(150 blocks) of blank information.

Pit

Since the discs are recorded in  Binary Digit, which means there are only two kinds of data in it: zero and one. Therefore, the "down" part, which we called "pit", is represent of zero.

It is a system that allow parents to set in DVD players which are only allowed to play certain kind of DVDs. This would work only if the parents set the DVD player carefully and rule out the adult DVDs.

It means video resolution 2048x1536.

This term refers to an anti-piracy solution that restrains DVD players and only allows them to play DVDs that have same region code with the DVD players. However, some of the DVD players can play all DVDs no matter the region code, and it could be solved in the computers with proper software.

This term refers to lists of standers that discribe the Compact Disc audio formats which published by Sony and Philips. It is also one of the series "Rainbow Books" which discribe all kinds of CD formats.

This term stands for Super Video CD, and its video quality is better than regular VCD for worse than DVD. It can contain 60 minutes regular quality SVCD video data; however, if you try to put longer video in one disc, the quality will go stright down.

It specially refers to a kind of DVD player that you usually put near your TV instead of your computer. It is usually used for playing video DVDs and it can be connected to TV and an advanced digital equipment.

This refers to a fixed amount of data in a disk or disc. In the optical storage, a sector contains 2048 bytes.

It is the short term of "Super Audio Compact Disc" and it was developed by Sony and Philips and was introduced in 1999.

Compare to Disc-at-Once recording, CD burners record one track at a time, and between tracks the laser heads will stop and wait for burners to prepare the recording information.

In a data CD, a track can contain data, file, pictures or anything that can be load into computer. In a audio CD, a track can contain one song, one piece of music or recorded voice. Usually there are gaps between tracks.

TOC

It refers to Table of Contents in a CD. It tells the reading systems that how many tracks does this CD have, how long these tracks are, where these tracks start and how much data this CD contains.

This is the first menu user will see when they first time play the DVD(or sometimes it would appear after the introductory short film). It can show the users various options relate to the DVD like contents, language setting or play whole DVD.

UPC

It refers to Universal Product Code, also known as EAN. Some of CD burner can write this code in TOC for reference.

It refers to a system that contain ISO-9660 for CDs and UDF for DVDs. It is designed for DVD player or computer disc drive that can read or record CDs.

UDF

It stands for Universal Disc Format. This is the format that is designed and used by various styles of DVDs.

VOB stands for Video Object, and this kind of file stores video data in the video DVD format.

It refers to a file folder in video DVD that contain video data.

It refers to video screen ratio wider than 4:3. Moreover, when we talk about DVD or HDTV, it means 16:9 ratio.

In optical storage this term means unnoticeable data which implants into audio or video data in order to protect copy rights. 

XGA

It refers to video resolution of 1024x768 pixels.